For many years, Hezbollah's popularity across the Arab and Muslim worlds seemed unbreakable. Long seen as the defender of those oppressed by Israel and America, its reputation has clearly taken a dent as a result of its support for President Assad in Syria. It now finds itself at odds with those across the Arab world seeking democracy and civil rights. An analysis by Paul SalemMore
In the view of Paul Salem, Director of the Carnegie Middle East Center in Beirut, Arab nations are assuming a leading role in the promotion of democratisation. They are no longer, as has been the case in past decades, just looking on from afarMore
Paul Salem writes that there is no consensus about the Arab Spring's second stage – choosing a new system of government and society – but the only way forward is to move rapidly toward free and fair electionsMore
The Ottoman Empire, founded in 1299, collapsed in November 1922, when the last sultan, Mehmed VI, was sent into exile. The First World War had been a disaster for the empire, with British and allied forces capturing Baghdad, Damascus and Jerusalem. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, was set up in 1920 in Ankara, which then became the Turkish capital. Constantinople, formerly the imperial capital, was renamed Istanbul in 1930.