A failure to appreciate the potential scale of the problem and a marked lack of interest in addressing the refugee question at a European level, meant that Europe′s heads of state were in utter disarray when the migration tsunami hit last September. Unfortunately little appears to have changed since. An opinion piece by Ana Palacio, former Spanish foreign minister More
Unable to contain the violence, suffering, and chaos engulfing the Middle East and North Africa, Western leaders are falling back into the Cold War trap. All they want is for someone – and now virtually anyone – to enforce order. By Ana Palacio More
The Ottoman Empire, founded in 1299, collapsed in November 1922, when the last sultan, Mehmed VI, was sent into exile. The First World War had been a disaster for the empire, with British and allied forces capturing Baghdad, Damascus and Jerusalem. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, was set up in 1920 in Ankara, which then became the Turkish capital. Constantinople, formerly the imperial capital, was renamed Istanbul in 1930.