The Egyptian intellectual Amr Hamzawy accuses both secular groups and Islamists of betraying the ideals of the 2011 democracy movement, but does not believe the current situation will trigger a new revolution. Daniel Steinvorth spoke to himMore
Syrian refugees are arriving in their thousands in neighbouring Turkey. They regard Recep Tayyip Erdogan as their hero. He has in the meantime distanced himself from rulers in Damascus. Daniel Steinvorth reports from the border regionMore
The Ottoman Empire, founded in 1299, collapsed in November 1922, when the last sultan, Mehmed VI, was sent into exile. The First World War had been a disaster for the empire, with British and allied forces capturing Baghdad, Damascus and Jerusalem. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, was set up in 1920 in Ankara, which then became the Turkish capital. Constantinople, formerly the imperial capital, was renamed Istanbul in 1930.