Egypt is in crisis. To tighten his grip on power, President Abdul Fattah al-Sisi claims to be its saviour. He tries to discredit any dissent as anti-national. His idea of the nation, however, does not include every Egyptian. By Ingy SalamaMore
Introducing swingeing new fines, the Egyptian government is coming down increasingly hard on journalists and publications determined to assert their right to freedom of expression. Tow the line or leave the country is the impression formed by many. By Ingy SalamaMore
The Ottoman Empire, founded in 1299, collapsed in November 1922, when the last sultan, Mehmed VI, was sent into exile. The First World War had been a disaster for the empire, with British and allied forces capturing Baghdad, Damascus and Jerusalem. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, was set up in 1920 in Ankara, which then became the Turkish capital. Constantinople, formerly the imperial capital, was renamed Istanbul in 1930.