One of the main motivations behind the 2013 military coup was to counter potential violence and terrorism. Yet one of its main upshots has been a surge in violence and terrorism, committed by both state and non-state actors. By Omar AshourMore
If new Arab military alliances want to avoid the mistakes of past interventions, their members will have to re-assess their approach and address the structural deficits that led to previous failures. By Omar AshourMore
While most Egyptians may support Morsi's aims, a dramatic expansion of presidential power in order to attain them was, for many, a step too far. Morsi's decrees have undoubtedly polarized Egyptian politics further, says Omar AshourMore
The nature of Libya's post-revolution armed Islamist forces is by no means straightforward. Salafi jihadism is not an organization, but an ideological trend based on the core belief that armed tactics of all kinds are the most effective. Background information by Omar AshourMore
The Ottoman Empire, founded in 1299, collapsed in November 1922, when the last sultan, Mehmed VI, was sent into exile. The First World War had been a disaster for the empire, with British and allied forces capturing Baghdad, Damascus and Jerusalem. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, was set up in 1920 in Ankara, which then became the Turkish capital. Constantinople, formerly the imperial capital, was renamed Istanbul in 1930.