Razan Zeitouneh – the missing face of Syria's revolution
When the revolution kicked off, it was as if Zeitouneh had waited her entire life for it. She was among the first activists to call on the Syrian government to release political prisoners in an open letter published a day after the first major protests on 15 March 2011.
"We are facing one of the most brutal regimes in the region and the world with peaceful protests, songs of freedom – chanting for a new Syria," she said in a 2011 video statement. "I'm very proud to be Syrian, and to be part of these historical days, and to feel that greatness inside my people."
But that wasn't enough.
Back then, 34 year-old Zeitouneh became directly involved in organising protests in Damascus and other cities across the country. Her efforts would contribute to the formation of the Local Coordination Committees, which were instrumental to early democratic efforts in Syria.
Her opposition to armed resistance set her apart from many of her contemporaries – some of whom would go on to support organised violence against the regime.
"The most important part of her personality is her rejection of injustice and her willingness to do anything to fight injustice," says Mazen Darwish, a long-time friend of Zeitouneh who leads the Syrian Center for Media and Freedom of Expression. "Razan had no ambition for power," adds Darwish, his eyes bright with the memory of her.
Seeds of revolution
Even before she would spearhead revolutionary action in Syria, Zeitouneh championed the rights of the underserved, the marginal and those most at risk of the Assad regime's brutal security apparatus as a human rights lawyer. "People's rights and treating them with justice is not something open to interpretation nor is it a point of view," Zeitouneh said in the last article she wrote before her disappearance.
In one case during the mid-2000s, Syrian authorities had launched a targeted campaign against Salafists, the adherents of an ultra-conservative brand of Sunni Islam. It included jailing them for long periods of time on trumped-up charges.
It was a crackdown about which no one was allowed to speak, recalls Nadim Houry, director of the Arab Reform Initiative and also a friend of Zeitouneh. "Razan at the time organised for me a clandestine meeting in her office with some of the mothers of these detainees," Houry says. "She took an incredible risk for someone that she didn't know very well, but she wanted to get the story out and she was willing to put her life in danger to do so."
But the work Zeitouneh would become most recognised for was her documentation of human rights violations after the arrival of the Arab Spring.
In April 2011, only a month after protesters had taken to the streets against President Bashar Assad, the young lawyer co-founded the Violations Documentation Center (VDC), which still operates today.
Zeitouneh goes into hiding
But she eventually found that she could no longer work effectively in Damascus with Syria's secret police stalking her across the capital. In May 2011, her husband was arrested at their home and held for three months. As a result, she went into hiding for two years.
By April 2013, Zeitouneh had decided to flee for the rebel-held town of Douma on the outskirts of Damascus in the hope of continuing her work more freely. It would be her last known location.
The VDC would go on to investigate war crimes, such as the August 2013 chemical weapons attack on Eastern Ghouta, which Zeitouneh documented with her colleague Thaer H.
At least 1,000 people were killed in the attack, including more than 400 children, according to independent sources. "I witnessed the massacre myself," Zeitouneh wrote then. "I saw the bodies of men, women and children in the streets. I heard the mothers screaming when they found the bodies of their children among the dead."
A hostile reception
Her arrival in Douma was challenging. Zeitouneh and her colleagues quickly figured out that their presence in the area was not welcomed. It was largely because she had immediately started investigating abuses committed by armed rebel groups, including Islamist militants.
"We did not do a revolution and lose thousands of souls so that such monsters can come and repeat the same unjust history," Zeitouneh wrote Houry, who previously worked for Human Rights Watch, in an email dated May 2013. "These people need to be held to account just like the regime."
Throughout 2013, armed groups vied for power in Douma, including the likes of Islamic State, the Nusra Front and Jaish al-Islam. The latter would go on to assume vast control over the area by co-opting its competitors – or outright eliminating them.
Kidnapped, never to be seen again
On 9 December 2013, armed men stormed her office in Douma. They abducted Zeitouneh, her husband Wael Hammada, fellow colleague Nazem Hammadi and Syrian activist Samira al-Khalil. They would become known as the "Douma Four" in the wake of their enforced disappearance.
A criminal complaint holding Jaish al-Islam responsible for the abduction was filed in France by the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) and the Syrian Center for Media and Freedom of Expression. DW was given exclusive access to their key findings.
The criminal complaint also alleged the militant group has committed crimes against humanity and tortured detainees. The group is not included in the UN's terror watch list.
The French war crimes unit in Paris confirmed that it has launched a judicial investigation regarding the matter as a result. A senior member of Jaish al-Islam was arrested in Marseille last year after entering France on a student visa. The arrest was made in connection with the probe.
Deutsche Welle's investigative unit collected witness statements in Syria and Turkey that corroborate some of the findings at the heart of the criminal complaint. They strongly suggest that Zeitouneh was held at one point after her abduction by the militant Islamists.
When approached by the Deutsche Welle, other high-ranking members of Jaish al-Islam rejected allegations of the group's involvement, saying the al-Qaida-affiliated Nusra Front or the Assad regime were likely responsible. Assad's forces, supported by Russia, regained control of Douma in 2018.
The disappearance of Razan, her husband and colleagues remains one of the great unsolved mysteries of the Syrian revolution. For Mazen Darwish, who co-founded the VDC with Zeitouneh ten years ago, their absence is reminiscent of Syria's pro-democracy movement.
"The fate of Razan and her colleagues resembles that of the civil, peaceful movement that tried to create a moral alternative for Syria," says Darwish. "They were crushed between the regime and these [Islamist] groups – that in the end are authoritarian as well."
Lewis Sanders, Birgitta Schulke-Gill, Wafaa Al Badry, Julia Bayer
© Deutsche Welle 2021
Editor's note: DW continues to investigate the disappearance of Razan Zeitouneh and her colleagues. If you have any information regarding their whereabouts or the circumstances of their abduction, please contact us securely at: DW.firstname.lastname@example.org