Real-life violence has followed online racism in the past. On 19 February 2020, a man killed nine people in shootings at two hookah bars in the central German town of Hanau after publishing a racist manifesto on the Internet.
 
"That is why it is important for us to make it clear that we do not accept it when people stir up hatred online," the German government's integration commissioner, Annette Widmann-Mauz, asserted. "The law enforcement authorities have to be able to follow up on such serious cases of insult and defamation in social media early on and of their own accord. It mustn't be a case of victims having to lodge a complaint themselves. State prosecutors have to take action on their own account."
 
Hate speech law
 
A new law on hate speech is intended to make this easier. The German government had taken the issue to the highest political level with its Cabinet committee on right-wing extremism and racism, Widmann-Mauz said. In addition, she said, there were plans to set up a help hotline for those who have received hateful comments online, and to collect more data to create a barometer on racism and Islamophobia.
 
Placards displaying an Islamophobic image (photo: Marijan Murat/dpa/picture-alliance)
Popular acceptance of Islamophobic sentiments has increased: "Over the last 10 years, scepticism about Islam has taken root in half the population," says El-Menouar from the Bertelsmann Stiftung's Religion Monitor. "And that often leads to prejudices not being recognised as prejudices anymore. We have to make encounters possible and address these issues early on, even at school. And that is still happening too little"

"We have to combat this form of Islamophobia much more strongly so that people don't let themselves be intimidated when living out their faith," Widmann-Mauz said. She said she hoped that more concrete proposals would be put forward next year by an Islamophobia working group set up by the government.

El-Menouar is one of the members of this group. She said her research had found that non-Muslims have fewer prejudices when they have more personal contact with Muslims. "We have to make encounters possible and address these issues early on, even at school," she said. "And that is still happening too little."

Knani, who studies international relations and development policy in Duisburg, said it was the first time that she had faced such vicious hostility. She, a believing Muslim, does not wear a headscarf and grew up in regions where lots of people had a history of migration. But many of her fellow scholarship holders have had negative experiences already.

The managing director of the Avicenna Studienwerk, Hakan Tosuner, also took part in the digital meeting with Rottgen and saw first-hand the anti-Muslim backlash that followed. "We had never experienced it to this extent before," admitted Tosuner. "But it was only a question of time before we were also hit by Islamophobia in this way."  

"We were all shocked and frustrated," Tosuner said. "We were actually doing something very normal, something that young people in Germany should do: exchange views with politicians and decision-makers and enter into a constructive, critical dialogue with them. That is why it is simply very sad that something like [the talk with Rottgen] on social media had such consequences."

 

"We can demand acceptance"

Knani said she had learned from the ordeal. "It is obvious that you shouldn't hide yourself," she said. "But, on the other hand, there are these hate-filled people in front of their screens. That makes things hard. But we have to learn to deal with it with self-assurance. We shouldn't beg for tolerance from a position of fear. Acceptance is not a matter of charity: we can demand it." 

Tosuner has now made it a priority to shield scholarship holders from hostility. But, he said, discussion is now going on at the Avicenna Studienwerk on to how to combat Islamophobia more strongly. "You can also learn from such crisis situations, from these bad experiences, and try to steer them in a positive direction, by exchanging ideas and taking joint action against hate," he said. 

But, Tosuner said, it is important that Germany not only pay attention to young and talented Muslims when issues of Islam and hate speech come into play. He noted that Avicenna's scholarship holders also have plenty to say about genetic technology, educational justice and the coronavirus pandemic.

Peter Hille

© Deutsche Welle 2021

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