Plumbing the depths of refugee pain
It's an unimaginable nightmare for those who haven't lived through it. Refugees who crossed the Mediterranean to come to Europe on dinghies and wooden boats remember women and children praying. They remember making one last phone call, because they were sure they would capsize and drown at any minute.
On some boats, they were "stacked" in layers of five people on top of each other, so the traffickers could make more money with each trip. After all, each person paid between €1,500 and €4,000 for the gruelling voyage. Up to 40 family members and neighbours collected the money needed to help at least one of their loved ones escape to Europe, the promised land.
Thamer, 22, from Iraq and 33-year-old Khabat from Syria, along with his wife and children, managed to survive the journey and make it to Germany after travelling through seven countries. Once there, they were lucky: after a stay in a refugee shelter, they came into contact with the Malteser International. The Catholic aid organisation provides refugees with so-called "integration pilots", people who help refugees cope with everyday issues and situations.
Honouring the dead
The "Human Cargo" art project was organised by Malteser in Ahaus, a small town in western Germany on the border with the Netherlands. On a recent Sunday in the Art Square Ahaus, several refugees were stacking wooden pallets, the kind found in cargo ships' freight holds, to create a large oval. In the centre of the space they put crosses and gravestones made of plaster, which symbolise the friends and family members who lost their lives crossing the Mediterranean.
Thamer's father was among those who died. Despite the loss, Thamer appeared almost cheerful while working on the installation. Ines Ambaum, the project's artistic director, explained: "Thamer is young and doesn't want to lose face," she said. "He wants to prove to the older men, especially the Muslims who keep picking on him because he's Kurdish, that he's a tough guy."
Ambaum said that many refugees "show different faces," depending on who they interact with. But with every day that the group has been working on the installation, the men and women have opened up to Ambaum more. Each screw they drilled into the pallets brought back more memories of the horrible trip across the sea.
The experiences that the men and women share reveal unspeakable suffering. Some men from Eritrea fled their home country along with their sisters. To protect them, the men claimed the women were their wives. A fatal mistake. The traffickers saw through the lie and decided to torture the families desperate to get onto their boats.
They demanded that the men sleep with their "wives" before being allowed on board. When the Eritreans refused, the traffickers raped the women. Several of the women only discovered they were pregnant when they arrived in Germany. Some of them committed suicide. "When you think about the fact that the people who had to go through this are being attacked by xenophobes and chased through the streets in Germany – that's like being raped all over again," Ambaum said.