The caliphate of the "Islamic State" has foundered, vanished from the map. Who would have thought that possible? Talk shows aired in 2015 made mention of the name "Islamic State" a dozen times at least. Coming from the mouths of academic and non-academic experts, it had a ring of permanence, of a lasting challenge.

That talk has turned to ashes. Even criminal organisations have to abide by certain rules in their internal relations and forms of provocation against the general social norm if they are to survive for long. This is ancient knowledge, recorded for posterity by the Jewish-Arab philosopher Bahya ibn Paquda, who lived in Zaragoza in the 11th century.

Fragile existence

Al-Qaida and its competitor, the "Islamic State", continue to exist in the supra-national underground; this cannot be denied. But they are fragmented, and the rivalry between the two groups vying for leadership in the violent spectrum of Islamism is now leading to some curious phenomena.

In Yemen, Al-Qaida got its hands on an unreleased propaganda video made by its rival and used it to expose the "Islamic State" to public ridicule. And here we are in the midst of a satire, which the British film "Four Lions" presented as early as 2010 as a suitable form for portraying the Islamic menace, long before the current CDU leadership took up the subject in all seriousness and without any black humour.

Olivier Roy is a French political scientist, consultant and UN envoy (photo: cc-by-sa-nc-Internaz)
The French scholar Olivier Roy was perhaps the first to recognise the pitfalls of this way of looking at the world and to discern the real weaknesses of "political Islam". His book – "L'echec de l'Islam politique" (The failure of political Islam) – was published way back in 1992. Roy warned against trying to explain modern Islamism, particularly its most radical manifestations, based on Islam alone

It is of course intellectually risky to name Erdogan, the Muslim Brotherhood, Mohammad bin Salman and al-Qaida in one breath. But it's a risk that those warning of the threat of political Islam are only too glad to take. It is after all part of their raison d'etre. If we want to be realistic, though, we have to look this construct or – to put it in ultramodern terms – "frame" squarely in the eye.

The French scholar Olivier Roy was perhaps the first to recognise the pitfalls of this way of looking at the world and to discern the real weaknesses of "political Islam". His book – "L'echec de l'Islam politique" (The failure of political Islam) – was published way back in 1992.

Roy warned against trying to explain modern Islamism, particularly its most radical manifestations, based on Islam alone. Trying to derive the current phenomena mainly from the nature, history and culture of Islam runs the risk of constructing something that does not stand up to a realistic and enlightened diagnosis of the present.

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