Cultural inferiority

This type of urban structure shapes the identity of those who are socially excluded and culturally stigmatised. They internalise social exclusion and make it an identity principle as well as a way of life. In turn, victimisation accentuates exclusion and becomes an aggravating factor insofar as the individual separates himself from society and no longer tries to enter it through normal channels.

In the majority of cases, this type of individual is of immigrant origin with a background that makes him a social reject or someone who suffers from "relative deprivation" (especially in the Scandinavian countries) or poverty and is at the same time treated as culturally inferior. They are often economically marginalised and they internalise this predicament and define themselves in an antagonistic manner towards society. To ensure their social promotion, they become deviant, members of gangs or more or less outlaw groups. In France, most of these districts are in the suburbs and are called "(poor) suburbs" (banlieues). Sometimes, the segregated district is not outside the city but part of it (like the "Northern districts" that are part of the city of Marseille or Neuhof, part of Strasbourg).

The suburban structure or that of isolated, poor and "segregated" neighbourhoods within the big city (as in Waltham Forest in London) or in the small town where exclusion and stigmatisation are even more accentuated (Lunel) promotes jihadism in many cases. This model is not only French. It exits but is less common, it is true, in Germany (one finds it in the Lohberg district of the city of Dinslaken), Sweden (e.g. the district of Rosengård in Malmö), Belgium (e.g. Molenbeek and Vilvoorde), Denmark (e.g. the districts of Mjølnerparken and Nørrebro in Copenhagen), and the Netherlands (e.g. the Overtoomse Veld district in Amsterdam).

Bus destroyed in the 7 July attacks in London in 2005 (photo: picture-alliance/dpa/P. McDiarmid)
During rush hour on the morning of 7 July 2005, four Islamist suicide bombers detonated explosives, killing 56 people and injuring over 700. The bombers in question were home-grown jihadists

Non-citizenship

In everyday language, there is a whole vocabulary in Europe to emphasise the non-citizenship of these sons or grandsons of immigrants (girls and granddaughters are perceived differently and generally behave differently): in Sweden, they are modestly called "non-ethnically Swedish" individuals, much like the "French on paper" in France, "Passdeutschen" in Germany and even more pejoratively the "Pakis" (of Pakistani or more largely south-east Asian origin, with a strong depreciative nuance) in England, the "Perker" (with the same pejorative as the Paki in English) and in Denmark. "Arab", "Bougnoul", "Bicot", "Beur" are pejorative expressions used in France.

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Comments for this article: Hotbeds of anger and resentment

Conclusion: the structural violence of the state in the urban environment is a source.
Now, the author should turn to the violence of the state abroad: killing the brothers and sisters of the Muslim in whatever name, humiliation, Guantanamo, shitting on their Koran, Palestine, hypocrisy and suppprt of dictatorship, etc).

Nadeem03.08.2018 | 12:28 Uhr