What sex education is really about
Regarded as immoral and vulgar, sex education is highly controversial in Pakistan. Common statements include:
"Our children do not indulge in premarital sex, so why teach them about it?"
"Our generation did well without it."
"It is a ploy to westernise our society."
"Sex comes naturally to everyone."
"It is unnatural for parents or teachers to talk about 'sex' with children."
These statements reveal a deep misunderstanding. Those who say this make people believe that sex education is about telling young people to have sex. In truth, it is about health, hygiene, family planning and relationship needs.
Pakistan has one of the most youthful populations in the world. More than half of all Pakistanis are under 30. They face huge challenges. The labour market offers too few opportunities, so many will depend on informal livelihoods. Many of them receive only a rudimentary education.
A need for basic informtion
Deficient sex education adds to the problem. Young people do not understand how their bodies function, for example, and they have misconceptions as to what gender relations are about. In the 21st century, moreover, ideas of sex are shaped by Internet pornography, which has a known propensity to include pictures of violence. The truth is that sex education is more important today than it was in the past.
On the other hand, it is clear that the older generation would have benefitted from better information too. Young girls, for instance, must know that the menstruation all of them experience is a perfectly normal physiological occurrence. Instead, it is hushed up. The result is shame, fear and unhygienic practices. When it occurs for the first time, menarche is a shock for young girls, and from then on, it is something to be borne in silence.
In Pakistan, people – and especially women – still marry at a young age. One out of every three brides is still a teenager. Many become pregnant soon after. This puts both their and their offspring’s health and life at risk. Experience also shows that teenage girls who marry early are less likely to finish school and less likely to find work outside the household.
In such situations these young women become economically dependent and are at higher risk of domestic violence. The lack of sex education actually entrenches destructive gender roles and reduces their scope for personal advancement. They need to learn at a young age how women become pregnant and what health requirements are necessary during pregnancy to protect them and their babies from harm.
It is well known that Pakistan needs to reduce its birth rate still further. The national government has been promoting family planning since the 1960s to reduce population growth. There have been some, but not sufficient results. Pakistani women, on average, still give birth four times in their lives, and far too many young couples still do not use contraception.
Illegal abortions are common
It is estimated that more than half of all pregnancies are unwanted. Though abortion is illegal in Pakistan, it is common. It is also dangerous – often conducted by unskilled persons in settings that are unfit for medical intervention. Telling teenagers early on how to use contraceptives and where to get them could make a difference.
Knowledge of blood-borne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is extremely low. Far too many people do not know that unsafe sex is not the only mode of transmission. Due to a culture of shame and contempt, no one knows the true extent of prevalence and incidence of such diseases. Sex education could improve matters.