Entering a new chapter in Syria
A state under the rule of Islamic law encompassing the entire world – the jihadists were aiming for nothing less. When their leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi declared the ʹcaliphateʹ in June 2014 from the pulpit of the Al-Nuri mosque in Mosul, he simultaneously omitted the last words from the name "Islamic State in Iraq and Syria" to emphasise the universal validity of the project.
They had set their sights on ruling not Syria, not Iraq, but the whole world. Thousands of Islamists from all over the world were so enthused by the idea that they travelled to the battle zone to help set up this "Islamic State".
"After all, as long as this state does not emerge, Muslims as a whole are sinners and in the eyes of God, the noble, the great, responsible for their failure to establish it," wrote Hassan al-Banna, one of the pioneers of the Islamic State concept. In his view, this state was a common area of justice and equity where all Muslims could live in harmony with Islam. In Iraq and Syria, the reality was of course far removed from this idea, because the jihadists quickly established a tyrannical system of governance.
Collapse of IS just a matter of time
The attempt to realise their state-building project in the face of global resistance was just as much doomed to failure as the idea that they could rule using terror and violence. It may well be the case that the jihadists were not that much more brutal than the Syrian regime or some of the other militias, but the demonstrative showcasing of violence only served to repel many followers and caused the international community to close ranks in a rare show of solidarity. So in the end, it was just a matter of time before the jihadists would be vanquished.
So now the terror state is history and a new chapter in the Syrian conflict begins. With the capture of the last IS bastion in eastern Syria, the Americans may now actually begin pulling out their troops in earnest. U.S. President Donald Trump had always stressed that for him, the battle against IS was the only reason for the U.S. military presence in the war-torn nation. In December, he announced he would be pulling all 2,000 soldiers out of Syria. Heʹs now said he will be leaving a group of 400 soldiers there, but this does little to change the fundamental situation.
For the Syrian Kurds, the American withdrawal is a bitter blow. In the battle against the jihadists, the Syrian Kurdish YPG militia bore the brunt of the burden and suffered heavy losses. At the same time, U.S. weapons, advisors and air support in recent years allowed them to extend their dominance over large areas beyond the Kurdish settlement zone. This development was met with angry protest in Turkey, because the YPG is closely affiliated with the PKK guerrillas battling against the Turkish state for decades.
Absence of support for the Kurdish YPG
For the historian Jean-Pierre Filiu, choosing the Kurdish militia as an ally in the war against the jihadists was a mistake from the outset. "It required a huge lack of foresight to believe that a militia alien to the (Sunni-Arab) population of the Euphrates valley in its (Kurdish) composition and its (leftist) ideology would be able to stabilise the situation following the toppling of the Daesh pseudo-caliphate," wrote Filiu in Le Monde. This absence of support also explains why the battle against the IS militia made such slow progress in recent weeks, he continued.