Top 5 Afghan presidential candidates in Saturday's election
The prospect of a peace deal with Taliban insurgents created an atmosphere of uncertainty in the months leading up to Saturday's presidential election in Afghanistan. Even the 18 candidates for the country's top job didn't know whether an election would be held at all.
President Ashraf Ghani stood firm that polls would go ahead, but his campaign was barely visible. It wasn't until 7 September when U.S. President Donald Trump stunned even his own peace envoy with a tweet saying a peace deal with Taliban insurgents, which only hours before had seemed a certainty, was dead and the presidential election was back on.
But for many of the candidates it seemed too late and while their names will appear on the ballot, most have dropped out.
The two top contenders for Afghanistan's top job are long-time rivals Ghani and Chief Executive Abdullah Abdullah, who were forced by Washington to share power in a so-called Unity Government after the 2014 presidential polls were mired in widespread corruption and fraud and a winner couldn't be declared.
Here are the five leading contenders for president:
Mohammad Ashraf Ghani
Born in central Logar Province on 19 May 1949, Ghani, who holds a doctorate in Anthropology from Columbia University, first went to the U.S. as a high school exchange student.
Except for a brief teaching stint at Kabul University in the early 1970s, Ghani lived in the United States, where he was an academic until joining the World Bank as a senior adviser in 1991. He returned to Afghanistan after 24 years when the Taliban were ousted by the U.S.-led coalition.
Afghanistan: the scars of war
Majid Saeedi speaks through his photographs. The impressive and memorable photos in his Afghanistan photo documentary show how decades of war, conflict and occupation have ravaged the country and its people. Traces of these conflicts can be found everywhere, most particularly in the faces of the Afghan people.
Two young Afghan girls play with a prosthetic arm south of the Afghan capital, Kabul. Photos like this are typical of the work of photographer Majid Saeedi, who grew up in Tehran. He has said that right from the start of his career, he wanted to document human violence in order to open people's eyes to the horrors of the world. His idea for a photo documentary on Afghanistan came to him when he met victims of war at a Red Cross Centre in Afghanistan.
Majid Saeedi began taking photos at the age of 16. He has said that his aim in taking photographs is to tell the stories behind the news, to tell the stories of people who have experienced dreadful things in their lives.
Many of the pictures in his Afghanistan photo documentary feature children. This photo, for example, shows a boy who lost both arms in a land mine explosion playing football.
The traces of war and conflict are visible everywhere in Afghanistan: in the faces and bodies of its people, but also in its buildings and infrastructure such as these ruined, bullet-ridden carcasses of buildings.
The ruined houses contrast sharply with the beautiful natural surroundings that cannot be destroyed by bullets and bombs.
Drug addiction is a huge problem in Afghanistan. With a global market share of almost 90 per cent, the country is the world's largest producer of opium. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that many are addicted to the drug. The UN estimates that up to 300,000 children and young people are addicted.
Rows of military personnel in the morning sunshine at the Police Academy in Kabul. For over ten years, Germany has been helping train and build up the police force in Afghanistan. The objective is to leave behind an functioning police force that works for the good of the country on the basis of the rule of law by the time the last foreign troops leave the country in December 2014. Many doubt, however, that this goal can be reached.
A young boy winces with pain at the corporal punishment being meted out to him by his religion teacher while other children look on. Afghanistan does not have a regular school system. In fact, if they attend school at all, many children only get a few years' schooling because they have to go out and earn money to help support their families.
The wars and conflicts that have plagued Afghanistan since 1979 have had a disastrous impact on the education of its people. In the summer of 2011, the German government released some truly shocking figures: 72 per cent of men and 93 percent of women in Afghanistan have no school-leaving qualifications.
In a workshop organised by an NGO from Malaysia, Afghan women are learning skills that will hopefully allow them to earn their living and support themselves. No less than 80 women take part in each course.
Two men injured in a Taliban revenge attack in Kandahar in May 2011. Just a few days after the assassination of Osama bin Laden, the Taliban struck. Four people were killed and 36 injured.
An Afghan weightlifter rests after taking part in a competition. Sports like weightlifting and bodybuilding are very popular in Afghanistan.
Traces of conflict and war from the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in 1979 to the NATO-led ISAF mission that began in 2001 are visible all over the country and have become part of everyday life. In this oddly surreal photo, a farmer stacks bundles on an old Soviet tank in his field.
A teacher calls for silence as pupils at this Afghan Koran school in the southern city of Kandahar study the holy book.
Animal fighting has traditionally been a popular spectator sport in Afghanistan. Across the country, people come together to watch cock fights or, in this case, dog fights.
Those who suffer from mental illnesses in Afghanistan have a very difficult life indeed and often live in inhuman conditions. This photo shows two patients in a psychiatric clinic in the city of Herat in western Afghanistan chained together at the ankles.
Akram has two prosthetic arms. When he goes to bed, he hangs them on the wall above his bed. There are thousands of other children like Akram in Afghanistan.
Majid Saeedi has won many awards for his work, including 2nd Prize at the World Press Photo Awards 2013 for his Afghanistan photo documentary.
Ghani was first the head of Kabul University until he joined President Hamid Karzai's government as finance minister. In 2010 he led the lengthy process to transfer security of the country from U.S.-led coalition forces to Afghanistan National Security Forces (ANSF), which took effect in 2014.
Ghani first ran for president in 2009, capturing barely a quarter of the votes. He ran again in 2014 in what was considered a deeply flawed and corrupt exercise. Rival Abdullah Abdullah took the most votes in a first round and Ghani the most in a second. So deeply flawed were the polls that the United States, fearing widespread violence, intervened to cobble together a Unity Government that allowed the two to share power: Ghani as president and Abdullah as chief executive.
Ghani and Abdullah's five-year rule as a Unity Government has been a tumultuous one marked by relentless bickering and infighting. Corruption remains rampant.
In Saturday's election, Ghani's vice-presidential candidates are former Afghan National Security Chief Amrullah Saleh and Sarwar Danish.
Born in the Afghan capital of Kabul on 5 September 1960, Abdullah Abdullah joined the anti-communist resistance in Afghanistan shortly after graduating from Kabul University's Medical School.
He joined the ranks of Afghanistan's Jamiat-e Islami led by Ahmed Shah Massoud, who was killed by suicide bombers on 9 September 2001, just two days before the 9/11 attacks in the United States. Masoud's Jamiat-e-Islami was one of several U.S.-backed mujahideen groups who fought the former Soviet Union's Red Army, which invaded Afghanistan in 1979. The ex-Soviet Union pulled out in 1989 unable to defeat the mujahedeen who took power in Kabul three years later in 1992.
Abdullah served in the mujahideen government led by Jamiat-e-Islami under the presidency of Buhanuddin Rabbani. During their time in power, the mujahideen groups turned their guns on each other, destroying large swathes of the capital and killing about 50,000 people, mostly civilians. They were ousted in 1996 by the Taliban.
When the Taliban were overthrown in 2001, Abdullah served in President Hamid Karzai's government as foreign minister until 2005. In 2009, Abdullah challenged Karzai for president and lost. He secured 30.5% of the votes.
In the deeply flawed 2014 polls, Abdullah took 45% of the vote in the first round against his rival Ghani, who secured 35%. When the second round of voting ended, Ghani had 55.3% of the vote and Abdullah 44.7%. Chaos ensued and the U.S. intervened to form a Unity Government.
Abdullah's two vice-presidential candidates Saturday are: Enayatullah Babar Farahmand and Sattar Saadati.
Born in northern Kunduz Province on 1 August 1949, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar was a U.S.-declared terrorist until he signed a peace agreement with President Ashraf Ghani in late 2016.
His history is a violent one.
Hekmatyar was leader of one of the U.S.-backed mujahideen groups that fought the former Soviet Red Army in the 1980s and one of the largest recipients of U.S. money. When the mujahideen government took control in 1992 from the pro-communist government, Hekmatyar was named prime minister, but he instead went to war with rival mujahideen groups, turning the capital into a battlefield. They stayed in power until the Taliban, whose fighters bitterly opposed Hekmatyar, took over in 1996.
For five years, Hekmatyar lived in Iran while the Taliban ruled, returning to Afghanistan after the insurgent group was overthrown. He fought the U.S.-backed coalition and those former mujahedeen like Abdullah who had aligned with other mujahedeen groups to become the Northern Alliance to fight the Taliban.
Hekmatyar's fighting strength was limited and he opened negotiations first with President Hamid Karzai and later with Ghani to eventually sign the deal. What deal?
He follows a hard-line interpretation of Islam, one that is restrictive of women's participation in society.
His vice-presidential candidates are Fazlul Hadi Wazine and Qazi Hafizulrahman Naqi.
Born on 30 June 1968 in Maidan Wardak Province, Nabil, an engineer, was the deputy director of internal affairs on the National Security Council following the collapse of the Taliban.
He later created and headed the Department of Protection for the President of Afghanistan. He also served as deputy head of the National Security Council and in 2010 was appointed to head Afghanistan's intelligence agency, the National Directorate of Security. He served until 2012 but returned a year later as acting intelligence chief when a suicide bomber wounded Asadullah Khalid, the chief at the time.
His vice-presidential candidates are Murad Ali Morad, a former Afghan army general and Masooda Jalal, a former presidential candidate and former minister of women's affairs. His campaign promise is "security and justice."
Ahmad Wali Massoud
Born in the Afghan capital of Kabul on 1 November 1964, Massoud is the youngest brother of Ahmad Shah Massoud, the Northern Alliance leader killed in a suicide bombing in September, 2001.
After university study, Massoud took up politics under his older brother's guidance. During the 1992-96 rule of the mujahideen government, Massoud was appointed a diplomat at the Afghan Embassy in London, where he served as ambassador for the Taliban government, which was not recognised internationally.
His vice-presidential candidates are Faridah Mohammadi, a former minister of higher education and Abdul Latif Nazari. Massoud's slogan is "Change." (AP)