Recognise the potential
We live in a post-truth era. And not just since Donald Trump. Among the convictions of German conservatism that run contrary to the truth is the idea that Germany is not a country of immigration.
Germany, not a country of immigration? The plain facts tell a different story: in 2014, 16.4 million people in Germany claimed a migration history, a number that corresponds to 20.3 percent of the entire population. 9.2 million people with a migration history are Germans. Around two thirds (or 10.9 million) of people with a migration history living in Germany are first-generation migrants; a third (or 5.5 million) are people with a migration history in the second or third generation.
Anyone who mistrusts these figures may perhaps believe in the normative power of German soccer. In the 2014 World Cup, it was players like Jerome Boateng, Sami Khedira, Shkodran Mustafi and Mesut Ozil who ensured Germany's success. And in the current squad too, national coach Jogi Low counts on top performers with a migration background, on players such as Antonio Rudiger or Emre Can.
Germans can only be descended from Germans
Germany, not a country of immigration? This is not a fact, it is merely wishful thinking. It is the ideological construct – one that still wields power to this day – of a homogenous and hermetically sealed concept of the "German people" – which can only be accessed through birth.
Only since 1 January 2000, alongside the still primary law of descent (ius sanguines, literally.: blood right) has territorial law (ius soli, literally: right of the land) been applicable to the acquisition of German citizenship. Under the ius sanguines law, only those who are descended from German parents are German. This makes access to German citizenship and affiliation to the German nation exclusive. People with a migration history can never be Germans! They may acquire citizenship through formal channels – but this does not make them German, members of the German race.
To the uninformed, this may appear antiquated and in view of the highly problematic and sinister history of the term "German people", it may even appear rather eerie. But it is precisely this hermetic, exclusive and discriminatory understanding of the state of being German that continues to exert an influence on politics and society to this day. On the one hand, it still creates tension and friction on the question of the social participation of people with a migration background and on the other, it keeps the right margin of the political spectrum fertile for feelings of resentment towards people with a migration background, towards foreigners and above all towards Muslims.
What does it mean to be German?
A Wikipedia search as to the national identity of the Germans, as to the prerequisites of being German, yields a positive surprise. "According to several studies, the majority of Germans themselves say that the most crucial criterion in being German is use of the German language." Irrespective of the fact that only one study is actually cited, upon closer examination of this very study it becomes apparent that the still potent understanding of being German is far more exclusive and closed-off than this quotation might hopefully suggest. The Wikipedia entry refers to the study "Deutschland – Post-Migrantisch I" (Germany – Post-Migration I) which Berlin's Humboldt University published in 2014 together with the Berlin Institute for Integration and Migration Research (BIM) 2014. The results of this study are both illuminating and telling.