Chinaʹs oppression of the Uighurs
Save our Turkic brothers, Mr. President!

Following a long silence, the Turkish government yielded to pressure from its nationalist voter base in February – arguably in a bid to garner local election votes – and criticised the persecution of the Uighur people by China. Yet how to strike a balance between Turkic solidarity and pressing economic interests? By Ulrich von Schwerin

Ever since systematic attempts by the Chinese government to assimilate the Uighur Muslim minority in Xinjiang came to light last year, Recep Tayyip Erdogan has been faced with a dilemma. On the one hand, many Turks consider the Uighurs their Turkic brethren on the grounds of their language, culture and religion.

The Turkish president is therefore under pressure from his nationalist base to criticise the persecution of the Uighurs. On the other hand, however, Turkey maintains close trade relations with the People’s Republic – on which Erdogan, faced with an economic crisis, is more reliant than ever.

While Erdogan likes to present himself as defender of Muslims and has regularly criticised the persecution of Palestinians and the Rohingya, he has declined for months to waste words on what activists view as a "cultural genocide" of the Uighurs, just as Saudi Arabia and other Muslim states have avoided any criticism of their economic partners.

It was all the more unexpected, therefore, when, on 9 February, Turkey released a strong statement accusing Beijing of seeking to erase the ethnic, religious and cultural identity of the Uighurs. "It is no longer a secret that more than one million Uighur Turks incurring arbitrary arrests are subjected to torture and political brainwashing in internment camps and prisons," the Turkish Foreign Ministry declared. The "systematic assimilation" of the Uighurs is, it continued, "a great shame for humanity".

Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu (l) and Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi (r) shake hands after holding a joint press conference in Beijing, China on 3 August 2017 (photo: picture alliance/abaca/Turkish Foreign Ministry /A. Gumus)
Economic interests of greater concern to Turkey than pan-Turkic solidarity? On a visit to Beijing in July 2018, Turkish Foreign Minister Cavusoglu affirmed that Turkey would not tolerate any anti-Chinese activities. During the economic crisis in Turkey last summer, Beijing granted Turkey a loan of 3.6 billion dollars. Following Februaryʹs announcement, China was quick to make clear that further criticism will come at a price, closing its consulate in the Turkish port city of Izmir, one of the end points on the new Silk Road

Potential erasure of an entire culture

Two weeks later, foreign minister Mevlut Cavusoglu also called for the protection of the cultural identity of the Uighurs and other Muslims and safeguarding of their religious freedom. The Turkish policy expert Selcuk Colakoglu feels that this change of course must be viewed against the backdrop of the Turkish local elections at the end of March.

"Since the beginning of the year, Turkey has seen an uptick in protests by nationalist supporters of the opposition Iyi Party and the Felicity Party," says the Director of the Turkish Centre for Asia Pacific Studies. "Erdogan has come to the conclusion that his AK Party is at risk of losing votes if the government maintains its silence on the oppression of the Uighurs."

In Istanbul, Uighur activist Abduwali Ayup welcomes Turkey’s change of course, but is calling for further steps, as an entire culture is under threat of erasure. "I’m grateful for this declaration but Turkey can do more. If it raises its voice, it can influence the entire Islamic world," says the linguist, who was imprisoned in Xinjiang in 2013 for advocating for Uighur children to be able to receive an education in their mother tongue. He fears that if nothing is done, the Uighur language will disappear in 30 years.

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