Negotiating peace with the TalibanAny deal will do
On his recent return from Doha, Zalmay Khalilzad, spoke of the "significant progress" that had been made. Khalilzad is not just anyone. Unlike Afghan President Ashraf Ghani, Khalilzad is the man of the hour. The Afghan-born Khalilzad is U.S. special envoy for Afghanistan. He not only led the recent peace talks with the Taliban in Qatar, he has been shaping American policy in Afghanistan for almost 40 years.
After a full six days of talks in Doha, a withdrawal of international troops from Afghanistan – which is top of the Taliban's list of demands – could soon become a reality. According to reports, a pull-out of U.S. troops within 18 months is on the table. Two-thirds of the roughly 22,000 foreign soldiers in the country are Americans.
"No Afghans want foreign troops to be permanently stationed in their country," said President Ghani in an address directly after the talks in Doha. A short time later, speaking in an extensive interview with the Afghan private TV channel Tolo, Ghani referred to Khalilzad as a "friend". But it wasn't all sweetness and light; Ghani also took a side-swipe at Khalilzad: "He is an American. I am the President of Afghanistan," he said, among other things.
A peace deal reached over the heads of the people?
The fact that all negotiations in Qatar have taken place without a representative of the Afghan government at the table is all the more problematic. The Taliban have repeatedly voiced their lack of interest in talking with the Kabul government, saying that they do not want to negotiate with a "puppet regime".
This is why many Afghans suspect that a peace deal could be reached over their heads and that this deal would above all serve American and not Afghan interests. First and foremost this would impact on Afghanistan's political elite, which now fears losing its grip on power.
It is an open secret that Ghani's government would fall apart in no time were foreign troops to leave the country. The reasons for this include not only the Taliban, but also countless inner-Afghan disputes between brutal warlords and corrupt politicians, which make the Afghan state seem very fragile indeed.
No refuge for al-Qaida and co.
Washington's main worry is that Afghanistan could develop as it did in the 1990s and up until 2001. In short, the U.S. does not want Afghanistan to return to the days when it was a refuge for extremist terrorist groups such as al-Qaida. This demand has to all appearances been accepted by the Taliban too.
The situation is exacerbated by the fact that the "terrorist threat" emanating from Afghanistan has often been dramatised and blown out of proportion. "The transnational terrorist threat from Afghanistan has been exaggerated. For years, I have puzzled over claims by American and Afghan officials that 20 terrorist groups operate in Afghanistan," says Afghan analyst Borhan Osman of the International Crisis Group.