Religious feast highlights interfaith unity in Senegal
When Senegal's Muslim families gather for the biggest Islamic religious feast of the year, they often encourage the Christian minority to join them in a tradition of tolerance rare in West Africa.
Many Roman Catholics in Dakar were invited Monday to join Muslim friends for Tabaski, the local name for the Eid ul-Adha or the Festival of the Sacrifice, which commemorates Ibrahim's willingness to slaughter his own son if God commanded it.
For Senegalese student Grasse Diop, his preparations to welcome Christian friends were placidly watched by Dembel, a family sheep destined for imminent slaughter like the ram God told Ibrahim to sacrifice as reward for obedience.
"They come every year for the Tabaski and I go to the Christmas mass. We spend all our religious feast days together," said Grasse, whose name is derived from Grace, a Christian one.
The family courtyard in Dakar's Ouakam district was turned into both abattoir and kitchen. Women sang as they cut up the freshly killed meat while children played by bowls containing discarded entrails.
The festival of Eid-ul-Adha – a time of prayer and celebration
Around the world some 1.5 billion Muslims are currently celebrating Islam's principal annual festival: Eid-ul-Adha, or the Festival of Sacrifice. The festival lasts for four days, during which time Muslims traditionally greet each other with the words "Eid Mubarak" or "Blessed holidays!"
United in prayer: the Festival of Sacrifice marks the highpoint of the Muslim hajj – the pilgrimage to Mecca. All Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lifetime, but not everyone can afford to. That′s why celebrations are held around the globe, such as here in Nairobi, and prayers are said everywhere
Animal sacrifices: every year, as here in India, millions of sheep, lambs, cattle and - in some regions - camels are slaughtered. This is in memory of the prophet Abraham (Ibrahim), who was prepared to sacrifice his son to God (Allah). But Allah was merciful – so the story goes – and Abraham was allowed to sacrifice a sheep instead
Holy ritual: the slaughter of cloven-hoofed animals is another aspect of the festival for which people gather together. In Egypt’s capital, Cairo, Muslims take part in the holy ritual. At the end the meat is distributed among the believers: a third is for the family, a third for friends and a third is given to the poor
A family affair: many Muslims are keen to get home for the beginning of the Festival of Sacrifice, known in Arabic as ″Eid-ul-Adha″. It′s traditionally a time for friends and family to get together. Thousands of people here are trying to catch the last train from the Bangladesh capital Dhaka. Some 90 percent of the population are Muslim
Filigree patterns: since the Festival of Sacrifice (Eid-ul-Adha) is a special occasion, many Muslims dress up. In Bangladesh, Pakistan and many other countries, the women apply henna tattoos to their hands. Believers put on their best clothes and most valuable jewellery to attend the prayers and celebrations
Roses for the dead: even those who have already passed on are remembered during Eid-ul-Adha. These Muslims in Hyderabad, India are packing roses into little bags. Later the roses will be placed on the graves of the dead as a sign of respect
Shrouded in smoke: this year believers in Indonesia have had to wear face masks in some areas. Smoke from illegal slash and burn operations in the rainforest on Sumatra have led to smog in many places. Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world
Under police protection: terrorist attacks have become the order of the day during Eid ul-Adha in recent years. Security is therefore high in many countries. Such as here in Karachi, Pakistan′s largest city, which has an estimated population of 15 million
Celebrating under fire...: Muslims in Syria are also celebrating Eid-ul-Adha. In the Syrian town of Idlib, some 60 kilometres southwest of Aleppo, these children are enjoying the holiday – despite the civil war and daily bombing raids run by the Syrian air force
...and in safety: this young refugee has been given a balloon to celebrate the festival. In many refugee shelters in Germany and Austria, Muslims have come together to cook, pray and celebrate Eid-ul-Adha – no longer in fear of their lives
"Jacques, Marie, Joseph... All my Christian friends are wishing me a good Tabaski," Grasse said amid a flurry of calls on her mobile phone. "When I visit them, I feel at home. There's no difference."
"When a Christian dies, all the neighbours go to the church for the funeral," added her brother Pape Doudou Diop. Though a Muslim like more than 90 percent of the population, he said he regularly goes to church for communion.
Once their guests settled around a huge platter of barbecued food, Christians could not be told apart from the Muslims, though Yves-Martin Kemden wore a special long robe to honour his hosts during his tenth Tabaski.
"It's a custom," the young dog breeder said. "Here, you're always invited by a neighbour even if you don't share the same religion."
Hardline Islamist militants have made their mark in other parts of West Africa, trying to impose their more intolerant and often violent vision of Islam on communities in countries like Nigeria and Mali.
For those ultra-conservatives, other religions and even other branches of Islam are often seen as apostates.
Sociologist Fatou Sow Sarr believes Senegal's religious harmony dates back to the preachings of leaders of the widespread Mouride brotherhood, who taught tolerance towards Christians from the 19th century on.
"You find Christians and Muslims in the same family and they intermarry. Religion comes second to blood ties, so the communities have never been antagonists," she said.
"Today there's more risk of dissent among Muslims because of conflict between the Mouridic communities and Wahabi influence than between Muslims and Christians," Sow Sarr said, distinguishing between Senegal's predominant Sufi order and a more conservative Islamic branch.
In their courtyard sheltered by palm trees, the Ndoye family was packing boxes with mutton to take to Christian friends no longer able to get around.
"Our cousins invite us at Easter, making sure not to cook pork," smiled Karim Ndoye, a house painter in his 50s who added that one of his grandmothers was Catholic. "It's family, we're indivisible."
At the clergy house of Dakar Cathedral shaded by a riot of bougainvillea flowers, octogenarian Father Jacques Seck made ready to join Muslim friends for the Tabaski.
A self-styled "Muslim Christian", the elderly priest is known for sprinkling his sermons with verses from the Koran and urging dialogue among religious communities.
"This religious tolerance is at the root of Senegalese society," he said. "The good fortune of this country is that it's rare for a family not to have members from both communities. The diversity built the nation." (AFP)